Kolm tütart! In the end of 90s, Urmas Dresen, the lead of the Estonian Maritime Museum was looking for a place for museum ships, like ice-breaker Suur Tõll, submarine Lembit and shipwreck from Maasilinna, among others. Mõnikord on vaja hüpata mitme erineva allika vahel, kuna ühes sõnaraamatus on olemas info grammatika kohta, kuid puuduvad definitsioonid ja vastupidi.
This is a slightly modified version of an article that was first published in Languages Around the Globe. Part 1. Part 2.
Difficulties in measuring language knowledge When I finished secondary school, I thought I knew two and a half languages — my native Estonian, English that I mostly picked up from the media, and some basic German that I had studied from grade six onwards.
Going on to the university, I had the idea of learning French which I did with some moderate success by taking beginner French classes. At Bold Squats valus time, I was fascinated about reading French literature in French and reckoned that if I stuck to it until the end of my studies, perhaps I would have learned something at the end of year three.
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Somewhere between my first and second semester of French, I came across an old textbook intended for advanced students of French. In addition to reading the textbook, I would try to listen as much French as I could. I would be using several on-line radio stations or other media outlets, although for most part, I stuck to the talk-shows on France Culture.
Ultimately, I decided to drop the class because I felt could just continue working on my own. Instead I focused on taking beginner level courses in other languages — first there was Finnish and Spanish, then there was Ancient Greek and Russian, later still Swedish and Icelandic and so on. Most languages I dropped after a semester or two, because reading foreign texts in parallel with classes would soon leave the classroom progress well behind.
A few I would keep a little longer, particularly Ancient Greek which I found so difficult that I went on with it almost three full years in the Classics Department.
Others I would continue on my own, sporadically going through advanced level textbooks and listening native radio stations.
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Seven years since I had the vague idea of learning French, the number of languages I had studied Bold Squats valus if I have been deliberately superficial with the process was quickly reaching 20 and beyond. I Bold Squats valus this is good example of how communication on definitions can go wrong.
In contrast, you might come across language teachers, who will say that most people are unable to speak properly even their native tongue. A Portuguese native speaker might insist s he speaks absolutely no Spanish, but does in reality a lot better than an English native speaker in an intermediary Spanish course, saying s he is able to speak just a bit. Learning through reading As I previously mentioned, me learning a language very much revolves around reading.
This a very straight-forward technique and hardly an original way to study a language.
Perhaps a little more unique is downplaying the importance of knowing grammar by heart, and placing the emphasis on being able to recognise grammar passively and, as an extension, to understand what a particular grammatical element actually expresses. This is only possible thanks to the great innovation of online dictionaries that allow you to get a away with not having to know the base form of any given word.
Traditional dictionaries seldom include different grammatical forms of the same word because of space constraints — something which no longer matters in the case of online dictionaries. I have no idea.
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What does it mean, this 3. There are, of course, some downsides to this method that might pose a challenge when first adapting this new mindset.
First, the emphasis is placed on reading the written text of the language, which is perhaps not the skill people usually want to develop.
I doubt that there are many people who set out to learn a new Artroosi ravi maitsetaimedega, because they really really want only to read it. The written language can diverge quite a bit from the spoken language, and you might might be accused of learning something which does not exist in reality — that you are learning an artificial system of the language, rather than the language itself.
Klassikaraadio eetris kaks korda kuus neljapäeviti!
Listening is a very simple solution to compensate for the inherent artificiality of the written language, be it a popular radio or TV station of the target language. Ultimately reading and listening will result in actually being able to communicate, but the way there might be a little long and bumpy at first.
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- Salvi valude ja lihastega
The second problem is more of a technical kind. Not all languages are equally represented in Wiktionary or on-line in general, and you might have trouble finding a dictionary that also offers sufficient information on the grammar.
Persian, on the other hand, is reasonably well represented in the English Wiktonary, thus learning Persian was smooth sailing since the first day, even though it uses the same Arabic script with voluntary vowel marks.
In the case of non-alphabet languages, such as Chinese, the problem is also that the writing system does not really depict the sound of the language. In the following segment, I will continue with five more specific pointers on attitudes related language learning and languages in general.